Archive for May, 2007

書的長度

-{五月二十四日.晴}-

有否試過看書看到大汗淋漓呢?

我今天就有這種體驗。我原本想為我自己當年所造的一本 Chinese Typography 的日誌《beijing2 字‧旅‧情》拍一個小 video。因為這本日誌是「經折裝」(oriental folded book),所以實際上是一張很長很長的紙。雖然它有這個特性,但是我從未把這本書完全攤開,我看它時,也只是平常的一個 spread 一個 spread 地看。所以,我今次就想把它完全攤開,看看怎樣,也想為它拍下一個 video。我把它帶了去一個球場,我想球場也有足夠空間,讓它完全伸展。在烈日當空下,我嘗試把它拉開,怎料,在我打開到一定長度的時候,它被風吹翻了;真的是搞到我「手忙腳亂」,因為太熱,我又汗流浹背,汗不斷滴出來,我又驚我的汗滴到本書、弄污本書;同一時間,又驚書被微風吹爛,想用很快的速度把它收起。

因為實在太大風了,所以我還是拍不到。我想我要拿一些重物壓一壓住攤開的書頁。於是,我再回家再出去。但因為天都開始黑了,我唯有明天再試。

在烈日下,我動了全身把這本書攤開;翻書,可以是一種運動。

-{五月二十五日.晴}-
今天,我已經準備好所有東西,嘗試翻開這本書拍個 video,但也失敗了。因為周圍的風實在太大,而那書的書紙實在太脆弱,風把壓著書頁的重物與書頁一起吹翻;看見書頁有一點皺了,我的心也皺了一皺。我想,我要把它放在一個室內而又平靜的空曠地,我才可以嘗試拍成我這個 video。

-{五月二十七日.雨}-
今日,我終於返回 poly 再三拍攝這本書的 video,我就在 SD 的 courtyard 拍了,因為地方淺窄,所以最後還是分了兩個 videos 去拍這【beijing2 字‧旅‧情】的長度。因為相機問題,真的拍得不好,但最主要的是嘗試完全攤開這本書,拍攝它的長度。

【beijing2 字‧旅‧情】的總長度=3,300cm



【beijing2 字‧旅‧情】簡介

這本日誌記錄了在二零零五年的夏天到北京學習中國字體設計的經驗。日誌設計是一張很長很長的紙,用傳統中國風琴式摺合而成。以「時間」為主軸,由左至右,以圖像與文字交織在當中,讓閱讀者從中感受這段旅程。


【自序一】

自我感覺良好

香港人的本性,什麼也喜歡用秤去衡量、用尺去量度、用經驗把一些人和事作比較。自從去過北京以後,不知怎的,我總是常常將之拿來與香港比較。在香港的時候,常常也覺得很煩厭,有千百萬樣事情壓著;又常常埋怨香港的空氣差,人煙稠密,吸不到半啖新鮮空氣;董伯伯的政府又官僚;總之就是對香港諸多不滿。而未到過北京之前,我對北京真的有很大的憧憬,以為百般美好也會在這千年古都找到。第一次去北京是在去年,首次碰到北京的各樣美好,但不及我的預期,更有一些看得我「眼火爆」的事。今次到北京,看到北京與北京人的各種進步,也使我進一步認識與了解這個城市。對北京有了深一層的體會之後,再回望自己的老家;雖然真的有些地方比下去,但也終於感覺到自己生於香港、長於香港、身為一個香港仔的幸福。

這次是我第二次來北京體驗生活,而這次課程的主題是【生活中‘人與字(體)’的關係】(Chinese Typography in daily life);所以我把這本lablog改名為<beijing2 字.旅.情>。

「字」正正是今次課程的主要目的,學習中國字體學──怎樣運用與設計漢字,作為平面設計的重要元素。「旅」就是這次北京旅程中的生活點滴的積累。「情」是我與文字、設計、北京朋友、香港、北京等的情感交流。(寫於 2005 年,載於<beijing2 字.旅.情> report)

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設計師的Ultimate Goal

註:這是師兄「阿醒」所寫的文章。

今天在辦公室對着電腦雲遊太虛的時候,一位剛辭去工作,待業中的朋友忽然透過MSN問我:「What is your ulitmate goal of being a designer?」我先是被嚇了一跳,然後揉一揉眼睛,再看清楚問題,「ultimate goal」、「designer」…這個突如其來的問題一把找住我的思絮,把我從五里雲外召了回來。坐在案前想了好一陣子,我便這樣回答她:

「做一些出色的設計作品(graphic, 書籍設計….etc)出黎,讓更多人能從欣賞它們中,明白平面設計對日常生活所能起到改善與幫助,帶動整個設計行業的進步」

我的朋友說這個回答挺嚴肅的。那時我所想到的是,作為一個設計師,除了自身在工作上的成就以外,還可以對設計界作出甚麼貢獻,所以便這樣回答她。其實我對這個回答不十分滿意,只是一時間想得不夠仔細,才匆匆作了一個「還可以」的回答。過了片刻,我再寫了另一個回答給她:

「透過不斷的創作,反思平面設計在生活中所扮演的角色。不斷挑戰自己對平面設計既有的概念/觀念,除了要做到為用家帶來美感經驗外,還要創造新的生活意義。

而在不斷創作的過程中,要一點一點地累積設計經驗,慢慢地建立一套自己的設計觀(誇張一點,叫設計哲學也可以吧),然後將自己的設計觀應用到作品之上。

我認為每個設計師都應該要有一套自己的設計觀,因為我覺得思考設計觀的過程其實有助自己深化對設計的認知同理解。」

這次回答得比較仔細,我對這個回答亦比較滿意。因為它既道出了我心目中設計的價值所在之外,還帶出了一個我認為是專業的設計師應該具備的要素:設計觀。 一個沒有個人見解,只會應客人的要求而去作設計的設計師是不會進步的。必需要有獨立的思考,創作時不囿於既有的觀念,敢於作出挑戰與嘗試,不斷反思、再消化再沉澱,然後才能提煉出來真真正正屬於自己的對設計的深層認知。這樣才可以提升設計所能創造的價值。最後我再給她一句總結:

「能為生活經驗注入價值和意義是一個出色的設計應該要做到的」

最後,我的朋友再了一個問題:「你怎樣去實踐?」這次我一時間實在答不上來。

與受友結束了對後話,回想起由初初在學校修讀設計課程到現在,才幾個年頭,畢竟在這行頭打滾的日子尚短,其實談不上有多少經驗可以沉澱。但朋友一個看似簡單的問題,就這樣迫我作了一次徹底的反省。當然,這一刻的ultimate goal,並不等於明日的ultimate goal,重要的是有沒有思考過這個問題。而且只要一直向前行,他日回過頭來時,能發現背後有一個又一個的ultimate goals,就已經很不錯了。

杉浦康平「聲之設計」

我之前也在《把五月天的音樂震撼帶進書籍設計》那篇文章也提到杉浦康平先生怎樣把音樂融入設計中,現在 post 這兩段 videos,使大家容易明白。這兩段 videos 是我在【疾風迅雷——杉浦康平雜誌設計半世紀中國展】,他的講座時拍攝的。用這小小的動畫解釋了他的設計之聲。

杉浦先生解釋說:
「乍一看像結晶體,
也像初始的生命體,
然而又像不肯靜止,
孕育著脈動和呼吸,
「秩序」和「噪聲」兼而有之的音響發生器,
裡挾著進化、
連續運動的封面系列應運而生。」

SOS, Semiotics, and Society

{我也想了好一陣子,要否把這篇文章 post 上來作分享呢?因為我始終想這個 blog 集中於討論書籍設計,但最後,我也決定放上來。這是一篇以符號學的角度去分析日劇《Strawberry On the Shortcake》的文章。我想,如果我把電視劇當作是「書籍的延伸」或「劇本的延伸」(以一系列的流動畫面去說故事)去看的話;那麼,我們可以以相同的手法分析一套日劇或分析一本書。《SOS》是著名劇作家野島新司先生的作品,他在這作品大玩符號。}

“Television is absolutely central to contemporary Japanese culture.”_*1]

—Andrew A. Painter, 1996

To a certain extent, the Japanese TV dramas, or dorama reflect the reality in the society. They are closely related and some of the plots in the story are always picked up from the social phenomenon. If you want to know more about Japanese culture, watching Japanese TV drama is inevasible. In this passage, using a TV drama “Strawberry On the Shortcake” (SOS) as a specific example to explain how the TV drama reflects the society and its impact to us. Through breaking down SOS by using semiotic means, we can go deeper to see what’s behind the story and the spirit the writer really wants to tell us.

First, there is a short introduction about the story SOS. You may not watch it before and it is not as famous as other Japanese TV drama such as Long Vacation and Love Generation. However, the script, the dialogue and the props in SOS are well designed. This is a teenage love with bittersweet touch. When you’re watching it, you will feel some kinds of burden on your heart.

A shy schoolboy Manato 入江真斗 (Takizawa Hideaki 滝沢秀明) has developed a crush on Yui 入江唯 (Fukada Kyoko 深田恭子), a free and somewhat infantile spirit who has just become his stepsister by marriage. Yui, however, has eyes only for Tetsuya 佐伯哲也 (Kubozuka Yusuke 窪塚洋介), who has become the toughest kid in the school by default, since a mysterious illness has kept him in the same class for two years. Love triangles in Japan, of course, are never that simple—Tetsuya has really failed his exams twice in a row because he is conducting a secret affair with his school teacher Mariko 真理子 (Ishida Yuriko 石田ゆり子), a confused twenty something who nurses a broken heart over the death of her fiancé. Meanwhile, as if you couldn’t guess. Manato is adored by his neighbor Haruka 石川遙 (Uchiyama Rina 內山理名), a literal girl next door.

SOS & Semiotics

This is a teenage love story with full of signs. Therefore, I try to use semiotic approach to analysis SOS. Semiology/ semiotics is usually defined as the science of signs. It begins with the assumption that the meaning of words, images or objects is neither natural nor inevitable. Meaning do not come with mental labels attached on them, they are socially constructed. The meaning of things is inscribed within discourses and social practice. The meaning of things is therefore fixed by culture, not by nature.

The central unit of meaning is the sign. A sign refers to anything that carries a meaning, be it an object, a word, an image or a symbol. Semiology deconstructs meaning to see how it is constructed. The sign is therefore broken down into 2 parts, signifier and signified. A signifier is the object, word, image or symbol before it has been given a meaning. On the other hand, the signified is the meaning we associate with it.

The signifier and the signified exist in very different fields. The signifier exists outside our heads in the material world: we relate to it by using our senses. The signified has no material presence. It is what we think of or feel in response to the signifier, and it therefore exists purely in our minds. The relation between the signifier and the signified is therefore something we construct._*2]

Then, we can go deep inside SOS to see the signs and their relation to the Japanese society.

Strawberry On the Shortcake & Love

The title of this TV drama “Strawberry On the Shortcake” is, in fact, a psychology test. Manato asks a simple question repeatedly throughout the show: the hypothesis is that you are a strawberry lover; when you eat a shortcake, do you start with the cake or with the strawberry on the top? It shows that different people have different values/ attitudes towards LOVE.

Some are passive, just like Manato and Haruna in the show, gratification-deferring cake eaters who save the best until last. This kind of people just wants something like Manato says in Episode 4 “That there’s a little bit of happiness even in ordinary lives.”

Some are active, just like Yui and Tetsuya, go-getting strawberry eaters who want everything now and give little thought to the consequences. They are different from the former one. They want something like Yui says in Episode 4 “Even if it’s just for one second, I want to feel utter happiness in this world.”

The audience has some kind of resonance with this. Don’t you think that the society is full of these two kinds of people?

Apart from this, it is quite interesting that Japanese love to make “love story” TV dramas. The subject matters of the TV dramas in Hong Kong and the Mainland China are different from Japan. Hong Kong makers like to mix all the things in one while China makers like to make TV dramas about “History”. There is a cultural and historical difference. In the past, linked with acknowledgment of the significance of the natural world as it stands is the affirmation of human desires and emotions. The Japanese tend not to suppress such feelings. The ancient Japanese composed love poems expressing their emotions frankly and joyfully. This tendency has persisted down to the present. In Japan, the fiery reformer Nickiren (1222-82) confessed, “I shed tears when happy, I shed tears when sad.”_*3]This is exactly what Yui do in SOS. Sexual and emotional love was affirmed in the society for a time. The Japanese way of thinking went a step further to emphasize “love” now.

In the last episode, Tetsuya gives a valedictory speech in the graduation ceremony. The script writer also wants to end the story with LOVE. Here is part of it:

“We were born into this world to love. We weren’t put into this world to suffer. The 20th century that has been created by irresponsible adults is filled with conflict & deceit. However we were not born into this world to suffer.”

So, the Japanese make that much touching love stories is not a sudden. There is a historical base.

Glasses & Masks

In SOS, the glasses Manato wears aren’t the real thing. They are actually not powered. When he puts them on, it’s as if he lives his life looking through a filter. Even if he is bullied at school, has no place either at school or at home, as long as he is playacting the script he writes, it’s not the ‘real’ Manato, or so he thinks.

Glasses are nothing special in our life until it is given a meaning. Glasses, alone, are the signifier (the thing we wear when we have eye disease). The signified is the ‘fake me’, someone Manato playacts. So, when Yui throws Manato’s glasses onto the road and let the truck crushes the glasses into pieces, she tell him that “The fake you is dead.”

People (adult and teenager) always put on different glasses/ masks in different situation. They always use different attitudes, faces to deal with different people in the society. But, they seldom use their ‘real’ face to deal with people and even “friends”. They are afraid of hurt. Don’t you think so? It is not a special phenomenon for the society in Japan. It is a global issue.

Although it happens everywhere, it is serious in such an extreme society, Japan. On the one hand, there are some core values and beliefs in Japan. These include: collectivism (an emphasis on the interests of the family, village, company or nation rather than those of the individual); consensus (a preference for harmony and agreement over open dissent and disputation); and hierarchy (accepting the importance of seniority and status)._*4] The core values are over kept and the Japanese become depressive.

So, on the other hand, they may set the dissatisfactory free in other ways. The suicide rate is very high in Japan especially in these few years of economic collapse. In SOS, Manato want to commit suicide because of the peer pressure. Besides, some Japanese may also develop some eccentric action. Also, because of teenage curiosity, Manato steals the underwear of his female teacher.

Strawberry, Cherry & Apple

Lots of small props are used in SOS. Three fruits are used as signs and there is signified behind.

Strawberry
The first one is, of course, strawberry. Strawberry is not as simple as the one on the shortcake. It has its implicit meaning. It represents a kind of people known as “Strawberry Clan” (草莓族). This term is very popular in Japan and Taiwan. This kind of people is born in or after 1980s. (The main characters in SOS) They are just like strawberry. They are young and have pretty and sheen outlook. But they are soft and week inside. Their surface is full of small holes; people should deal with them carefully. Some of their characteristics are: first, they are the only son/ daughter at home and the parents love them dearly. Second, they do not worry about money. Their pressure-resistance is very low. Third, when they meet some problem or pressure unexpectedly, they will be crushed at a sudden._*5]

The script writer is satirizing at or reminds the youngster to be strong.

Cherry
As we all know, cherry represents virgin. Even we do not have the same cultural background; we can get the signified as well. It has its globalized meaning. When you check in the dictionary, you can find one of the meanings of cherry is virgin.

In SOS, Manato feels shameful of being a male virgin at the age of 18. Even his stepsister has experience. He thinks the girls would not like this kind of boys.

Treating sex, Japanese is open-minded though they are conservative in some aspects. The plot reflects a phenomenon. They have sex with each other, especially the first time, is not because of love or happy or whatever; just because they want. In SOS, Manato give his first time to the artist just because he does not want to be a virgin any more.

Apple
In the beginning of the world, Adam and Eve eat the apple secretly in the Garden of Eden. Since then, some of the meanings such as evil, dirty, mysterious, etc are added to an apple.

In SOS, Tetsuya is conducting a secret affair with his school teacher Mariko. And Tetsuya like to eat apple. Almost every time, he is eating apple. This red and big apple implies the immoral relationship between him and his English teacher.

To certain extent, Japan is a conservative society. The love between teacher and student is unacceptable in this society. The teacher has heavy burden and has the shackles of conservation. They think that the teacher is immoral and she just plays tricks to students. This is the inherit values in the people’s mind.

Colours

It is very common to use colour as the signs in the media. We can feel the colours and there is an imagination space.

The main characters in SOS have its own colours.

“This is really something! Everything’s pink!”
Yui, putting on pink cover on her pillow, replies “It’s my lucky color, don’t you think it’s romantic?”
“Don’t you get a headache?”
“No, I love reds & pinks.”

The above is the conversation between Manato and Yui. It shows how Yui love red and pink. The colour also represents one’s character and nature. Red is suitable for Yui because she is healthy-looking and vivacious.

Haruka stares at him “I like the color blue.”
Not understanding Haruka, Manato goes “Eh?”
Haruka explains “The color blue is like the sky & the ocean, they go on forever.”

The above conversation between Manato and Haruka which Haruka states the reason why she like blue. Blue is like the characteristics of Haruka who is graceful, gentle and quiet. And it is not that eye-catching.

Manato asks “Why did you decide on the color green for me?”
“Ah, you’re wondering about that?”
“Uhm, sort of.”
“Because of oxygen.”
“Oxygen?”
“Uhm. When I’m with you, the air suddenly feels very fresh.”
“Is that so?” “The Manato that is green in color, gives me pure oxygen.”
“But even if there’s a lot of greenery, without the red colored sun, photosynthesis can’t happen.”
“Red color? Ah what is that! So it’s thanks to me?”

The above is the conversation between Yui and Manato. Maybe it is too obvious and odd to say all the things by mouth in the TV drama, but it is still interesting to describe someone’s relationship by colours and imagination.

Conclusion

The TV drama is a powerful media. Not only can the dramatic plot entertain us, but also the cultural and social issues deep inside. When we watch one country’s television series, we can understand their habits, social phenomenon and favourites.

Furthermore, television culture is the product of a remarkable combination of technologies, institutions, practices, and publics. The Japanese TV drama suggests that TV is not the same everywhere. How the medium is used and interpreted has much to do with the ways in which people see themselves and their relations woth others in society.

Television is both reflective and constitutive of modern societies.

footnotes:
*1] Please refer to Andrew A. Painter (1996). Japanese Daytime Television, Popular Culture, and Ideology. In John Whittier Treat (Eds.), Contemporary Japan and popular culture (pp. 197-198). Richmond [England]: Curzon

*2] Please refer to Bernadette Casey, Neil Casey, Ben Calvert, Liam French and Justin Lewis. (2002). Television studies: the key concepts (pp. 210-211). London; New York: Routledge

*3] Please refer to Nakamura Hajime (1977). The way of thinking of the Japanese people. In Japan Cultural Institute. Guides to Japanese Culture. (pp. 61-65)Japan: Japan Cultural Institute

*4] Please refer to Duncan McCargo (2000). Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Policy. Contemporary Japan. (pp. 59-61) Basingstoke [England]: Macmillan

*5] Please refer to 草莓72變 at XINHUANNET. COM
http://news.xinhuanet.com/food/2004-08/03/content_1702863_1.htm

References

1. Andrew A. Painter (1996). Japanese Daytime Television, Popular Culture, and Ideology. In John Whittier Treat (Eds.), Contemporary Japan and popular culture. Richmond [England]: Curzon

2. Bernadette Casey, Neil Casey, Ben Calvert, Liam French and Justin Lewis. (2002). Television studies: the key concepts. London; New York: Routledge

3. Nakamura Hajime (1977). The way of thinking of the Japanese people. In Japan Cultural Institute. Guides to Japanese Culture. Japan: Japan Cultural Institute

4. Duncan McCargo (2000). Chapter 4: Social Structure and Social Policy. Contemporary Japan. Basingstoke [England]: Macmillan

5. Mark Schreiber (Eds.). (2001). Tokyo confidential : titillating tales from Japan’s wild weeklies Tokyo : East Publications

6. Jonathan Clements & Motoko Tamamuro (2003). The dorama encyclopedia : a guide to Japanese TV drama since 1953 Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press

7. CJ Morikai’s Japanese Dorama Page: http://www.geocities.com/morikai/index.html

8. 草莓72變 at XINHUANNET. COM: http://news.xinhuanet.com/food/2004-08/03/content_1702863_1.htm

(written in 2004, an Critical Essay of Subject: Media Culture)

Tea or Coffee? 直書定橫書?

曾經與一位朋友討論過中文直書(排)/橫書(排)的問題。她是比較喜歡「右向左直排」的中文書的,她認為比較舒服方便;而當她翻「左翻的橫排書」時,她有時會不經意倒轉讀的。而我,作為一個 post-modern 之後,在這 hyper-real 的社會長大的年輕設計師,我歡迎任何形式的排字與寫字方法。我不理你是直排好、橫排好、左至右排好、右至左排好、上至下排好、下至上排好、倒轉來排好、繞圈排都好;只要你排得好,(換句話說,information hierarchy 做得好,層次分明,typography 排得靚、用得好,再加上照片、插圖的良好運用)讀者讀得到,就算不是最 reader friendly,但只要給讀者有「愉閱感」,這已經是成功了。這世界根本沒有標準答案,只有喜好。

當然,我講完自己的看法後,也應該看看其他人以更「科學」、更「理性」、更「客觀」、更「歷史」的角度去看直書/橫書。這篇文章的前半部會以多方面去展示各人對中文應直、應橫、應左、應右所作的討論;因為我想以比較 GLOBAL 的眼光去看這書寫的方向,所以後半部也會以歷史角度出發,同大家探討英文「左至右橫書」的原因。

-{上半部:中文篇}-

【甲骨文與金文開始】
長風卷地989在新浪論壇的一篇文章〈中國古文豎寫的原因〉裡提到:

「現今被發現的最早的漢字是甲骨文和金文(鐘鼎文)。甲骨和鐘鼎都不是正常的書寫材料,前者只是刻上卜辭用來占卜吉凶的,後者則是寫有銘文的器物,而真正的書寫材料是專用於寫字以記事或記言的東西。日常經驗告訴我們,人們總是按照習慣行事的。由於甲骨文和金文大都是竪行書寫,說明當時人們習慣於竪行書寫,而這種習慣則源自當時的正常書寫工具和材料。」

【牘片與簡冊】
長風卷地989在同一篇文,他再詳盡深入地說明與解釋為甚麼古人要由右至左豎寫,而放棄其他方向書寫,那是因為於簡冊「刻字」的原因:

「古人們左手豎握簡冊/牘片,右手持刀(筆)在一特定簡條上。」

我把古人要由右至左豎寫概括為幾大點:
1_易於固定簡冊/牘片
2_容易把字刻/寫漂亮
3_方便查看前文
4_換行書寫方便
5_方便卷動簡冊

以刀為筆、以簡冊為書寫材料的書寫特點,決定了中國古文豎行書寫向左換行的方式,同時深深地影響著人們以後千年的閱讀、構思與書寫習慣。

【漢字的本性】
長風卷地989也提到關於漢字根據本性而豎寫的問題:

「拋開排版印刷不談,僅就漢字的書寫來說,漢字是最適合豎行書寫的。在豎行書寫的方式下,漢字寫起來流暢連貫,有一氣呵成之勢,橫行書寫則容易出現停頓現象,難成氣勢。所以,書法作品大都是豎行書寫的,偶見橫行作品,其藝術性也往往比不上豎行作品。其中的原因是,漢字發展過程中自然而然地形成了適合竪行書寫的特點。漢字由橫、豎、撇、捺、折五種基本筆畫組成,這些筆畫互相交錯進行二維佈置。寫漢字時,總是由左角或上面起筆,收筆處大致可以分為兩大類,一類是在右上角補上一點,或向右上提筆帶出彎鈎,這類字適合在右邊橫著寫下一個字,但其僅占漢字的少部分;另一類是在右下角或下面收筆處,或者收筆於中間,這類字適合在下面豎著寫下一個字,佔漢字的大部分。」

而在杉浦康平先生的《亞洲之書.文字.設計 杉浦康平與亞洲同人的對話》裡,他與呂敬人的對談內,呂老師說過:

「我認為,漢字是方形的,同時從「天圓地方」和陰陽的概念,或者漢字的結構來看,也是適合於直排的。就是說,無論從文字結構的左右均衡,或是從文字的多少來考慮,直排比橫排更具韻律感。」

我認為長風卷地989與呂老師在這裡說得很好,漢字書寫那「一氣呵成之勢」是非常重要的,所以我們的漢字設計也特別著重我們字的「中宮」位;直排字時,有一個所謂的「行氣」(line)。但如果「中宮」不夠緊,整個字會散;亦沒有了那「行氣」。的確,漢字直排比橫排黑白比例來得更好,也更具韻律感。

【直書/橫書的傳說】
杉浦康平先生的《亞洲之書.文字.設計 杉浦康平與亞洲同人的對話》裡,他與呂敬人的對談內,呂老師曾經講了一個傳說:

「關於直排與橫排,有這樣的傳說,古代有三位人物創造了文字。最年長的是梵,創造了印度文字;其次是佉盧,創造了胡文;最年輕的是倉頡,創造了漢字。梵是從左到右,佉盧是從右到左,都是橫排;只有倉頡是主張由上而下書寫的。即「昔造書者之主凡三人:長名曰梵,其書右行;次曰佉盧,其書左行;少者倉頡,其書下行。」之說。

我想,原因與他們各自所居住的地域有關。梵居於天竺,佉盧另一方,他們以所看到北斗星的移動方向來決定從左到右,從右到左。而倉頡則居住於中原(中心),看到的星星是由上而下移動的。這只是一種傳說。」

而杉浦先生也回應了一個非常自然的看法:

「由上而下的問題,也與甲骨文有關吧。說起來為什麼用龜甲來占卜,是因為老天會根據甲殼的裂紋告訴你未來如何。即,甲骨文記錄的是上天的聲音。文字誕生的根本就有天地意識,這樣看恐怕天自然吧。」

我最喜歡聽這種浪漫的傳說,沒有指責,沒有爭吵,只有獨特而虛幻的見解。

【近代中文書橫排之路】
馮志偉教授在網上文章〈絕妙的空格〉裡提到:

「漢語書面語本來是右起竪排的,這樣的書寫格式使用了幾千年。1892年出版的盧戇章的《一目瞭然初階》一書中,開始使用橫排,有55篇橫刻的漢字與切音字的對照讀物。1904年出版的嚴復寫的《英文漢詁》是中國第一本完全橫排的書,而且從左起橫排,開橫排風氣之先。」

而當是左起橫排的理由如下:
1_漢字沒有自右而左書寫的字,所有的漢字都是從左邊開始書寫的,左起橫排跟漢字的書寫方向正好一致。

2_科學書籍中的公式都是左起橫排的,左起橫排跟數理化的公式書寫方式一致。

3_如果中文的文章中引用外國的人名、地名,外國人名、地名也都是左起橫排的,如果右起豎排,排印和閱讀都不方便。

這些好像也有他們的道理。但我們也要記得,當時是很多人「盲目崇洋」的年代,有些人是因為「破傳統而破這幾千年的傳統」。

【科學理論與實驗】
馮志偉教授在那文章也提到:

「1917年,錢玄同在《新青年》第三卷第三期上著文指出:「人目系左右相並,而非上下相重,試立室中,橫視左右,頗為省力,若縱視上下,則一俯一仰,頗為費力。以此例彼,知看橫行易於直行。且右手寫字,必自左至右,均無論漢文、西文,一字筆勢,罕有自右至左者。然則漢文右行,其法實拙。若從西文寫法,自左至右,橫迤而出,則無一不便」。他進一步從理論上論述了橫排的優點。1919年11月出版的《新青年》第六卷第六期上開了「中文改用橫行的討論」專欄,進一步申述左起橫排的優點。有人說,如果中文的排印「自右而左,所以寫到第二行的時候,手腕就碰到第一行;要是遇到不容易吸墨的紙,都要印到手腕上了」,如果改為自左而右書寫,「則可免此病」。有人根據生理學的基本原理,具體分析了人體眼球的構造以及閱讀時眼球運動的情況,指出眼睛「左右容易看,上下看困難」,因此斷定「橫讀容易,直讀困難」。」

杉浦康平也在《亞洲之書.文字.設計 杉浦康平與亞洲同人的對話》以科學角度分析過:

「從眼部結構看,眼球是由六塊肌肉環繞、轉動的。為了左右的橫向閱讀,只需移動眼球左右的兩塊肌肉;而為了上下移動眼球卻需要動用全部六塊肌肉。即,從肌肉疲勞度來說,縱向運動眼球是一件很辛苦的工作。」

但同時,他也有講相反的話:

「有人認為人的眼瞼是上下開合的,所以直排易於閱讀。」

從長風卷地989在那文章〈中國古文豎寫的原因〉可以看到另一實驗:

「從豎到橫的排列閱讀,對中國文字的書寫方式是個極大的變革。有人專門搞了一次專項實驗:挑選10名高三優等生,分男女兩組,讓他們閱讀從同一張《中國青年報》上精心選擇的抒情短文。結果差距明顯:橫排版的閱讀速度是豎排版的1.345倍。」

(但我要強調那時是中國剛剛把豎排轉為橫排的過渡期。)

張春興也做了一個「中文直橫行書寫速度之實驗研究」,
那實驗研究有兩個目的:
(一)求書寫速度與書寫方式及書寫習慣之關係;
(二)分析書寫速度與字體結構及字間關係之關係。

結果發現:

1_書寫純漢字組成的文字時,直行與左起橫行兩種方式,書寫無顯著差異。但右起橫行與其他兩種方式比較時,其速度相差甚大,特別是遠遜於左起橫行的速度。

2_書寫夾雜西文與阿拉伯數字的中文時,以左起橫行的速度為最快。直行與右起橫行的速度極相近,但均遠不及左起橫行的速度。

總括而言,科學理論與實驗確實非常有趣,但也未有絕對的真相,只是公說公有理,婆說婆有理罷了!而,我認為最重要的是習慣與教育的問題。

【設計方面】
在我搜集資料的過程中,我並未發現有很多設計師公開表態自己的喜好,除了日本書籍設計師杉浦康平先生。

在郝明義的《他們說有關書與人生的一些訪談》裡,杉浦先生公開表示堅持直排:

郝:日本的書與雜誌,為什麼如此堅持直排。
杉:這是傳統,而且我們有詩的傳統,像是俳句(haiku)、短歌(tanka)。如果使用橫書,就無法感覺到其中的詩意婉轉、深沉複雜。我們習於混合漢字與假名直向連續書寫,這與文學有關,包括詩歌。

郝:但是中文也有許多詩歌,我們仍然也用橫排。
杉:日本人比較固執吧。現在的年輕大學生的報告多半使用橫書,但即使如此,當他們想寫詩的時候,還是直寫。科學上來說,橫書較利於閱讀,因為我們兩隻眼本身就是橫向安排的,我們明白這點,但仍然堅持。

這是日本人寫作、閱讀與設計上的堅持。我在兩個星期前看日本電影〈手紙〉的時候,也發覺日本人到現代也流行以豎寫信的。感慨的是,很多很多我國的傳統,最後,也只變成日本的傳統,保留下來。

-{下半部:英文篇}-

我今次的主要目的是要在歷史的層面尋找出英文由左至右橫書的原因。當然,我們要先由拼音文字的起源開始,看看它的發展歷程,繼而找出由左至右書的因由。

我主要從 Philip B. Meggs 的 ‘A History of Graphic Design’ 尋求真相,慢慢覓得一點hints,一條若隱若現的脈絡:

首先,Philip B. Meggs 要給 Alphabet 定義:

(P.27) An alphabet is a set of visual symbols or characters used to represent the elementary sounds of a spoken language. They can be connected and combined to make visual configurations signifying sounds, syllables, and words uttered by the human mouth. The hundreds of signs and symbols required by cuneiform and hieroglyphs were replaced by twenty or thirty easily learned elementary signs.

Numerous theories have been advanced about the origins of the alphabet; suggested sources include cuneiform, hieroglyphs, prehistoric geometric signs, and early Cretan pictographs.

大部分的理論也支持歐洲字母的源頭有幾處,包括 cuneiform, hieroglyphs, prehistoric geometric signs 和 early Cretan pictographs。

以下的 Cretan pictographs 是最初 Alphabet 的發展源頭,也與中國漢字一樣,是畫了一些表意的象形文字符號開始的:

(P.27) Cretan pictographs

The Minoan civilization that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete ranks behind only Egypt and Mesopotamia in its early level of advancement in the ancient Western world. Minoan or Cretan picture symbols were in use as early as 2800 B.C. Short pictographic inscriptions written as early as 2000 B.C. have been found. About 135 surviving pictographs include figures, arms, other parts of the body, animals, plants, and some geometric symbols. By 1700 B.C. these pictographs seem to have yielded to linear script writing, a possible precursor to the spoken Greek language.

再看看西地中海地區的 Alphabet 發展:

(P. 28) The North Semitic alphabet

While the alphabet’s inventors are unknown, Northwest Semitic peoples of the western Mediterranean region—early Canaanites, Hebrews, and Phoenicians—are widely believed to be the source. The term North Semitic writing is used for early alphabetic writing.

(P.28) Sui generis, a writing script developed in Byblos, the oldest Phoenician city-state, used pictographic signs devoid of any remaining pictorial writing. Written about 2000 B.C., stone and bronze documents featuring this script have a syllabary of over a hundred characters and illustrate a major step on the road to an alphabet.

(以上這段講到有一百個以上的象形文字在石頭與骨頭上,也是給日後發展為 Alphabet 的重要一環。 )

(P.28) Ras Shamra script was found on clay tablets written in a true Semitic alphabetical script around 1500 B.C. It used thirty cuneiform like characters to represent elementary consonant sounds. … There were no vowels, which are connecting sounds that join consonants to make words.

(這裡終於講到有三十個像楔形文字的字符組成「輔音」,這使日後拉丁文字也是由一個一個字母橫向串成的。這亦確立了英文一定是橫寫而非豎寫的觀念。)

(P.29) The writing system exported by the Phoenicians, a totally abstract and alphabetical system of twenty-two characters, was in use by 1500 B.C. …… The Phoenicians’ right-to-left writing may have developed because stonemasons carved inscriptions by holding a chisel in the left hand and a hammer in the right.
… Early alphabets branched into multiple directions, including the Phoenician alphabet that evolved further in Greece and Rome, as well as the Aramaic alphabet, which gave rise to Hebrew and Arabic writing elsewhere in the region.

(這裡終於講到腓尼基人「由右向左」刻字的原因,就是因為左手拿鑿子,右手拿錘子,方便他們容易刻寫。這習慣也確立了一些語文如希伯來文也是「由右向左」橫寫的。)

(P.29) The Aramaic alphabet

The Aramaic alphabet, first used by tribes Aram, a large area in what is now Syria, is a major early derivation from the North Semitic script. The oldest surviving specimen dates from about 850 B.C. The Aramaic alphabet of twenty-two letters for consonantal sounds was written from right to left. A wide pen held at a forty-five degree angle often produced heavy horizontal strokes and thin vertical strokes. … It is the predecessor of hundreds of scripts, including two major alphabets used today—modern Hebrew and Arabic. Both of these functional and beautifully designed letter systems are still written from right to left in the manner of their early Semitic predecessors.

(這裡道出了,拼音字母流傳到這個時期,「由右向左」書寫也還是一個流行。那,究竟什麼時間才有所改變呢?答案在以下的希臘時期,變革就在那裡。)

(P.30) The Greek alphabet

Greek civilization laid the foundation for many of the accomplishments of the Western world—science, philosophy, and democratic government all developed in this ancient land. Art, architecture, and literature comprise a priceless part of the Greek heritage; it is fitting that the Greeks vastly improved the alphabet’s beauty and utility after adopting it.

The Phoenician alphabet was adopted by the ancient Greeks and spread through their city-states around 1000 B.C.

(P. 32) Initially the Greeks adopted the Phoenician style of writing form right to left. Later they developed a writing method called boustrophedon, from the words meaning to “plow a field with an ox,” for every other line reads in the opposite direction. Line one reads from right to left; then the characters do an about-face, and line two reads from left to right. The reader thus scans the text with a continuous back-and-forth eye movement, unhindered by the need to return to the opposite edge of the column to read each line. Finally the Greeks adopted the left-to-right reading movement that continues to this day in Western civilization.

以上提到希臘人也採用了腓尼基人的「右向左橫書」。他們還發展出另一個特別的書寫方法,叫 boustrophedon,意謂【用牛去耕田】,即隔行來回相反方向書寫。這個寫字方法的名字改得好,很貼切,很形象化;以這樣來回的書寫方式,寫希臘文就像耕田一樣,把整張紙掘爛。最後,希臘人採用了「左向右橫書」,影響到現在的英語寫作模式。這樣雖然沒有詳述原因,但以下那段也露出一點端倪:

(P.32) Greek scribes made their pens from hard reeds, cut into a nib and split at the tip to aid ink flow. These pens gave their writing a totally different character than writing by Egyptian scribes, who used soft reeds to brush ink onto the substrate.

(這裡提到希臘人改良了筆,我認為,這是使書寫方向改變的一個重要因素。如果之前你有留心看的話,腓尼基人是因為刻畫方便的需要而採用「右向左橫書」;而當希臘人有這麼方便的筆墨之後,正是時機去改變這書寫方向。而「左向右橫書」也是合乎邏輯的,因為:當用你的右手書寫時,你可以看到自己之前寫了些什麼,也可以避免手觸碰到未乾的墨水。{順帶一提,當我小時候由右向左直排寫中文時,也想避免手觸碰到未乾的墨水,怕弄花了字,甚至會放張紙墊著。})

到此,英文「左向右橫書」的謎底好像被揭示了一部分,但我相信這不是全部,你們有其他的看法與資料,不妨 post 上來再作討論。

把五月天的音樂震撼帶進書籍設計


今年五月四日,我與朋友到紅館欣賞五月天「離開地球表面」演唱會。個人而言,我對搖滾樂沒有特別的喜愛,但看過這演唱會後,我真心的被他們震撼的音樂力量所感動。五月天帶領我們踏地震動地球,他們強悍的音樂與互動的演出給予歌迷不單是視覺與聽覺的享受,還是「參與性」的享樂,一起跳、一起叫、一起做。他們的歌聲樂聲離開地球表面,衝進耳膜,直入心靈。我在回家後好一陣子也一路有耳鳴,那種興奮的感覺一直久久未散。在參與演唱會的同時,我也一直在想:怎樣才可以把這種震耳欲聾的搖滾音樂帶進平面設計、版面設計與書藉設計呢?想像如果我們能從無聲的平面設計看得到震耳欲聾的音樂,會是多麼棒的一件事呢!

要怎樣開始呢?我們可以從幾方面著手:

首先,看看 Keith A. Smith 在 ‘STRUCTURE OF THE VISUAL BOOK’ 怎樣說:

(P.32)”Whereas a book is three dimensional. it has volume (space), it is a volume (object), and some books emit volume (sound).

as so i think of volume, of sound and pictures in space. i think of implied sound in pictures.”

我就會說:「我想到的是 implied sound in layouts/ in typography。」他講到書會發出聲音,我們可能會想到一些小技術,例如裝一個類似聖誕卡的音樂裝置入書內,書也可以發聲,不止小音樂,什麼 mp3 也行。但我想的是,那我為什麼要看書呢?我為什麼不拿個 i-pod 出來聽呢?

說回正路的想法,Keith A. Smith 想到的是 implied sound in pictures;即是一些關於音樂的圖像暗示聲音;可能是一個正在拉小提琴的人的照片,我們會聯想到小提琴聲;可能是五月天演唱會的照片,我們欣賞過的話,我們有記憶與經驗,會聯想到那美妙的歌聲;可能是連續十張「石頭掉下水」的照片,我們會不自覺地聽到「咚」的這聲!這種說法就與日本設計師原研哉所說的「情報的建築」(Information Architecture)同出一轍。這是關於感覺或印象的合成問題。經由視覺、觸覺、聽覺、嗅覺、味覺等所帶來的刺激,在受者的腦中組合,加上被喚醒的「記憶」,我們稱為「印象」(image)的東西就會在此產生。所以只有圖像也可使我們看到聲音。

物理上看,書真的可以發出聲音的,當我們翻書頁的時候,視乎那是何種紙張,書會因那翻動書頁時,一張紙與空氣與另一張紙產生磨擦而發出不同的聲音。日本書籍設計師杉浦康平在<從「裝幀」到「圖書設計」>一文提過:「翻動書頁,紙張會發出聲音。字典紙的響聲是嘩啦嘩啦的尖聲,而中國古代用的宣紙如同積雪發出一種微弱的沙沙聲。可以發現各類書籍都有各自特有的聲音,用書甚至可以演奏出音樂。」証明書籍也可予人聽覺的享受。

而我在香港理工大學設計學院的老師 Esther 也很喜歡以「聲音」去說明「layout design」。她會從觀察平面空間上 graphic elements(點、線、面、文字、照片等)的大細、多少、位置、光暗,繼而用聲音(咚、咚、噹、叮、轟、咚、噹、嘭呀!)去說明一份 layout 的節奏感、張力、緊湊度與空間感。這是非常容易理解的分析,透過聲音,你好像在聽音樂一樣,很容易分辨出有否節奏感;從而明白這份 layout 的不足之處。她在零六年的「中文字體設計課程」中,就有一個 Workshop 叫做「傾聽漢字的聲音:聽音樂畫畫」。她播放音樂,同學就跟著她放的音樂的節奏與質感,用毛筆沾墨在紙上點,點有大有小、有深有淺、有空間上的分佈;形成一幅圖畫。這說明了版面設計也同樣有音樂感。

最後,我想節錄一段文章,就是羽原肅郎在《疾風迅雷:杉浦康平雜誌設計的半個世紀》(Wind and Lightning: A Half-Century of Magazine Design by Kohei Sugiura)中的文章〈「超藝術」的造型思考〉(P.191)的一部分。他說明杉浦康平怎樣設計「有聞無聲」的文字、若隱若現的聲響。

「基於噪聲的造型思考

噪聲、嘈雜、喧囂。所有機械運行時的鳴聲,或是風聲、馬嘶、鐵桶的擊打聲,也許都是噪音,而現代作曲家們以這些聲音為素材創作新音樂的情形已不鮮見。杉浦的噪聲模式,先是以直線、黑白條紋、條帶為基礎,將其剪裁、銜接、組合、進而疊加,在伴隨音響般律動的作品群後,出現了「影子」的主題;繼而是以「圓環」或「半圓」為主題,向「產生日本紋章聯想的結晶性」、「用活字標點符號照排印字」模式的跨越。關於這些設計,杉浦自己是這樣說的:

擁有一定結構的「空間場所」
派生出兩個或兩個以上的數字模式,
經過對數字模式的
組合、疊印、「增殖」,
形成變化無窮的系列。
影子、圓環、標點符號,
抑或數字「幻方」構成在產生設計上
作為要素協助構成,
各顯其能。
比如波紋翻滾的律動線群。
白與黑。
陰陽兩色,
激烈沖突的層次。
不同形態遭遇、銜接、分割、
產生斷層,
進發出伴隨著銳利的
閃光、節奏、回響的噪聲。
產生日本紋章聯想的結晶性。
它發端於單純的造型,
不久便增殖成向天地四方伸展手足的
復合雜音塊。

這不是「噪聲」,不是「雜音塊」。對於筆者來說,是無與倫比、清純透徹的音樂,是藝術。筆者斷言,美術史家亞歷山大.杜爾納(Alexander Dorner)贈給赫伯特.貝耶(Herbert Bayer)的那句話,也是書的標題 “the way beyond ‘art’ =超「藝術」之路”的另一個佐證,就在這裡。

杉浦所說的「噪聲」結構,究竟做何解釋?構成與版面設計,即是所謂造型大小配置的造型感覺,因杉浦特有的悟性和創造性而生輝。看似遵循數學規則,其實既非數學的、幾何學的序列組合,亦非黃金分割。如果有,只有杉浦獨創的數列。即使他用四階幻方的作品,也是從多項變化中選擇三四種,讓它們旋轉、翻轉,從而增殖成眾多組合。這些處理、安排、決定的方法、手法、表現,看似循規蹈矩,實則不然。它們與杉浦的大腦、他的感覺、他的官能共鳴,恰似莫扎特的旋律,如泉水般源源不斷地噴湧而來;它們與他的直覺互動,決定了杉浦獨特的造型表現。」

以上是我從 Keith A. Smith、Esther Liu 與杉浦康平諸位設計師的經驗所作的整理。期望我們的書籍聲音也能衝進耳膜,直入心靈。

圖:與我一起看五月天的朋友[賴記]所拍的

Poetic Japanese LunchBox


{Essay Report of Article
Kenji EKUAN. ‘Introduction: Joys of the Lunchbox’
pp 1-7; from The Aesthetics of the Japanese Lunchbox. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1998.}

“Good mind save; bad mind kill.” _*1]

—Kenji EKUAN

In fact, Kenji’s article is the introduction of the book “The Aesthetics of the Japanese Lunchbox”. To be frank, this article is just a rough summary of all the concepts and it also guides us to read this book further.

Kenji reads the Japanese lunchbox as both object and metaphor. He finds the traditional Japanese lunchbox a touchstone for discovering the country’s landscape, culture, and aesthetic sensibilities. It seems that Kenji tells us lots, but actually, there are two main concepts passing through the whole article. They are the Japanese visual culture and the many-talented national character. These are also what this article and this book impressed me. I would like to discuss further in this report.

Kenji, as Japanese, emphasizes much on the visual of a design. Throughout the passage, he reminds us repeatedly that you must allow your eyes to enjoy the beauty, the harmony, the seasons, the visual hierarchy, the space and frame of the food in the lunchbox. “The major asset of the lunchbox is its beauty.”_*2] said Kenji. Biologists also claim that visual sense occupies 80% of one’s sensibility. This is very important that people often desire to see something beautiful, especially Japanese. As Japanese tends to think more with their eyes than their heads, it is worth to design from the motivation of beauty.

The French Encyclopedist Denis Diderot (1713-1784) once mentioned that Japanese diet is abundant in the sense of vision: _*3]

“Colors, aesthetic, sense of touch, harmony, taste; you get all you want here.”

First, lunchbox ‘artist’ emphasizes on the 5 colors which are “white, black, yellow, red, and green”. And the traditional Japanese lunchbox contains, on average, 5 to 6 types of food in each of its four squares, bringing to the total of 20 to 25 colors. Second, as mentioned before, Japanese stress on the structure, the space, the colors of this delicious picture. Third, using the chopsticks thumbing the food is another enjoyment. Fourth, there are numerous and disparate elements in one compact lunchbox, but we also find them all harmoniously arranged. Fifth, 5 tastes which are “sweet, sour, bitter, spicy, and salty” should be include in the traditional Japanese lunch in a harmonious way.

It explains how the Japanese lunchbox becomes a functional art.

Moreover, Japanese is a race who cares about their national identity very much. Although it is just a box of rice, there is a philosophy behind. There is a kind of lunchbox called “Hinomaru” (丸の內便當) _*4] which is a box of white rice with a red plum in the centre. It symbolizes the national flag of Japan.

The Japanese visual culture also applies to other Japanese design. When you are travelling in Japan, you will properly express admiration for their packaging design. How come? All the gifts are packed prettily and in a kind of Japanese way. Even the paper box for carrying cakes, the angles of the card is definitely perfect. Maybe delicacy is a kind of national character; Japanese often focus on the small part of the design. Not only making it as beautiful as they can, but also making it very convenience for you. You feel very amazing when you care these very small parts.

Then, I would continue to discuss the many-talented national character. Japan, not the same as China, is a very small islands country. Farming is not very well because there are lots of mountains. There is also lack of natural resources; and it is often affected by the natural disaster such as earthquake. Almost 120 millions of people live in this small land and they are densely populated. Because of all these, Japanese are cultivated to have many talents and skills in order to overcome all the troubles they face. Some of them are the etiquette, nationalism, courage, sense of unite, etc. In short, the physical area of Japan is like a small lunchbox (container) which is packed with multi-talented character and full of enjoyment.

A typical design is the Japanese mobile phone. The mobile phones become smaller and smaller. This compact mobile phone is multi-functional. There are several hundreds of functions. For many Japanese, mobile is almost a very small personal computer in one’s pocket. They can use it sending e-mail, SMS; playing games; listening to radio, mp3; searching on the web; taking photos; planning timetable; etc. As there is 3G now, we can have face-to-face conference and watching TV. After all, maybe the most important function is to throw the loneliness away. The Japanese design approach is a bit different from the West. Western designers like to use “form follows function” approach and everything should be express in the outlook. But the Japanese like to design a product as small and beautiful as they can; all the powerful functions are packed inside.

So, both small Japan and small mobile phone illustrate the words “small but powerful”.

Personally, I respect this designer, Kenji very much. I have read Kenji’s interview in a local magazine. Maybe all the values and philosophies are important, but the designer’s mind is more important than everything. As you know, there are just lots of bad minded designers (who cheat others) both in Hong Kong and in other part of the world. Designers should be just like a doctor. Our mission is to improve people’s life so as to make them live more “comfortable”. The meaning of “comfortable” includes both of the physical and mental comfort. We should try our best to achieve this goal.

Hope more and more people can enjoy well “designed” life!

footnotes:
*1] Please refer to LO. <先進訪談:榮久庵憲司──便當盒詩意美學> pp 212-215; from CITYMAGAZINE issue 330
*2] Please refer to Kenji EKUAN. ‘Beauty Is Function’ pp 13-21; from The Aesthetics of the Japanese Lunchbox. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1998.
*3~4] 參見李佩玲:《和風浮世繪—日本設計的文化性格》,(田園城市,2002年3月),第一章,頁6-32。

Reference:
1. Kenji EKUAN. The Aesthetics of the Japanese Lunchbox. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1998.
2. 李佩玲:《和風浮世繪──日本設計的文化性格》,(田園城市,2002年3月)
3. LO. <先進訪談:榮久庵憲司──便當盒詩意美學> pp 212-215; from CITYMAGAZINE issue 330

(written in 2004, an assignment of Subject: Introduction to Design in China, Japan and Korea)


Contributor

Hei Shing
chanheishing@gmail.com

書就是… A Book is…


一片紙不但表現時間,也表現空間。而一片片的紙張組合起來的書就是一個高深的容器,盛滿文字,既能從中不斷汲取智慧,又能裝入無限的智慧。

A piece of paper reflects not only time but also space. Books are formed by binding papers together to become containers of words that serve as a reservoir as well as a spring of wisdom.

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